Industrialization and Expansion (1877-1913)
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Sixto Lopez (1863-1947) was a prominent and influential leader of the Filipino independence movement who worked closely with the American Anti-Imperialist League. In this article published in Gunton's Magazine (a pro-capitalist, pro-labor journal), Lopez denounces the U.S. presence in the Phillipines. He was secretary of the mission led by Felipe…

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Item Type: Newspaper/Magazine
Date: 1902

The Chinese Exclusion Act, passed on May 6, 1882, was the first major restriction placed on immigration in the U.S., and the only immigration law that explicitly barred a specific group from entering the country. The Exclusion Act forbade Chinese "skilled and unskilled laborers" from entering the U.S. for a period of ten years, required Chinese who…
In 1895, Wong Kim Ark returned to San Francisco, the city of his birth, from a trip to China. Customs officials denied him re-entry to the country and detained him, claiming that he was not a citizen; because of the Chinese Exclusion Act passed in 1882, he could not enter as an immigrant. With the help of the Chinese consulate and the Chinese Six…

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Item Type: Laws/Court Cases
Date: 1898

"The Black KPs" was written by Charles Hillman and Sidney L. Perrin in 1898 to bolster the domestic support for the war in the Philippines. While the sentiment behind the song was considered patriotic, the language in the lyrics are unmistakably racist.

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Item Type: Music/Song
Date: 1898

During the 1890s, popular songs and sensationalist news coverage played a large role in drumming up support for U.S. intervention and the Spanish-American War. "The Belle of Manila," written in 1898, was one of many pro-war songs that were played in the homes of middle and upper-class families to build Patriotism and romanticize U.S. involvement…

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Item Type: Music/Song
Date: 1898

In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, it was fashionable for middle-class people, especially young men, to visit working-class and immigrant neighborhoods. Such tourism was really voyeurism, exoticizing immigrants and laborers as enticing, perhaps dangerous, "others." Well-to-do visitors hoped to encounter unfamiliar people, food, and…

Item Type: Map
Date: 1891

This 1899 map of lower Manhattan includes the intersection of Worth, Baxter, and Park Streets, known as Five Points. Block 160 is marked and shaded.

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Item Type: Map
Date: 2007

This is a map of Block 160 in New York City's Five Points neighborhood 1902. Public opinion of the Five Points neighborhood was highly negative and filled with bias. The population of New York had ballooned by the mid-nineteenth century causing a housing shortage, so the Five Points consisted mainly of tenement housing and apartments mixed with…

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Item Type: Map
Date: 1902

Wong Kim Ark, a Chinese-American born in San Francisco, was required under the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 to acquire this Certificate of Registration before leaving the country on an 1894 trip to China so that he would be allowed back into the country. Despite this officially notarized document, U.S. customs officials at the port of San…

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Item Type: Government Document
Date: 1894

Even in the late nineteenth-century American West, a notably violent region, the violence directed against Chinese immigrants was shocking. The Union Pacific Railroad employed 331 Chinese and 150 whites in their coal mine in Rock Springs, Wyoming. On September 2, 1885, Chinese and white miners, who were paid by the ton, had a dispute over who had…

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Item Type: Government Document
Date: 1885