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Many miners wrote letters home to family and friends describing their experiences in California. In this letter, Robert Pitkin describes the tensions between American-born and Chinese immigrant miners.

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Item Type: Diary/Letter
Date: 1852

Many miners wrote letters home to family and friends describing their experiences in California. In this letter, Robert Pitkin describes the tensions between American-born and Chinese immigrant miners.

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Item Type: Diary/Letter
Date: 1852

In this game, students are assigned different immigrant identities and advance based on their access to economic opportunity and religious, political, and social liberties at different times in U.S. history.

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Item Type: Teaching Activity
Date: 2011

In the late 1880s, when this photograph was taken by Isaiah West Taber, there were over 20,000 Chinese living in California. Many settled in San Francisco's Chinatown, where markets, temples, theaters, and restaurants supplied a thriving commercial community.

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Item Type: Photograph
Date: Circa 1905

This writing prompt serves as an assessment for the activity A Country within a Country: Understanding San Francisco's Chinatown.

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Item Type: Worksheet
Date: 2011

This worksheet helps students analyze evidence from the Country Within a Country activity.

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Item Type: Worksheet
Date: 2008

This worksheet is used by students to gather evidence from a gallery walk in the activity A Country within a Country

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Item Type: Worksheet
Date: 2011

The playing field in the U.S. was not level for all immigrant groups. Chinese immigrants in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries faced a host of laws that restricted their freedom to emigrate, earn a living, and follow their native cultural practices. Individuals and organizations challenged these laws through the court system, with…

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Item Type: Laws/Court Cases
Date: 1858

The Chinese Exclusion Act, passed on May 6, 1882, was the first major restriction placed on immigration in the U.S., and the only immigration law that explicitly barred a specific group from entering the country. The Exclusion Act forbade Chinese "skilled and unskilled laborers" from entering the U.S. for a period of ten years, required Chinese who…
This chart shows the numbers of Chinese immigrants employed in various occupations in San Francisco from 1860-1880. Although the data is incomplete, the chart shows that the vast majority of Chinese worked in menial jobs as laundry workers, servants, laborers, cigar-makers, and other unskilled positions. Meanwhile, wages for Chinese workers…

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Item Type: Quantitative Data
Date: 1984