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This slide show presentation examines the role of women in wartime, offering a selection of images that suggest the realities of women workers in the war effort as well as the ways American women were represented in propaganda images of the period. From depictions of Lady Liberty imploring Americans to conserve food during World War I to the real…

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Item Type: Worksheet
Date: 1914

In this activity, students are assigned roles as different members of early American society and move to different areas of the classroom according to whether they could always/sometimes/never exercise different rights in the 1770s and 1780s. This activity helps students understand different rights and privileges and helps set up the document-based…

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Item Type: Teaching Activity
Date: 2010

While government planners and factory owners assumed that women’s industrial work during World War II would last only as long as the war lasted, many of the women had other ideas. After the war ended, despite their new skills, they found themselves forced to accept the same low-paying positions that had been the only jobs available to them…

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Item Type: Oral History
Date: 1980

Women participated actively in a variety of ways during the War for Independence; some even traveled with the Patriot army. Sarah Osborn was a servant in a blacksmith's household when she met and married Aaron Osborn, a Revolutionary war veteran, in 1780. When he re-enlisted as a commissary sergeant without informing her, Sarah agreed to accompany…

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Item Type: Laws/Court Cases
Date: 1837

Founded in 1903, the Women’s Trade Union League (WTUL) was an organization that brought together working-class women, reformers, and women from wealthy and prominent families. League members believed that working women needed help to gain better wages and working conditions, and that all women shared important values and goals. This seal…

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Item Type: Poster/Print
Date: 1903

In this activity, students analyze documents to arrange events on a timeline of women's suffrage. The timeline and documents will help students understand the intersection of social movements and constitutional change. This activity can be modified by reducing the number of documents. An optional Smartboard Notebook file is included to facilitate…

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Item Type: Teaching Activity
Date: 2010

Before World War II (1941-1945), when women worked outside the home it was usually in jobs traditionally considered to be “women’s work.” These included teaching, domestic service, clerical work, nursing, and library science. During the war, the nation needed more airplanes, ships, trucks, and other military hardware, and had…

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Item Type: Quantitative Data
Date: 1941

Suffrage activists staged a huge parade up Fifth Avenue in New York City on May 10, 1913. Over 10,000 women and men marched, and a crowd of over half a million lined the streets to watch. New Yorkers were inspired by women who had marched in protest during Woodrow Wilson’s inauguration two months earlier in Washington, D.C. There, suffragists…

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Item Type: Photograph
Date: Circa 1913

Women, who did most of the shopping in turn-of-the-century households, used their purchasing power to push forward many Progressive reforms. They organized local and national consumers' leagues to boycott businesses that employed unfair labor practices, such as child labor or tenement sweatshop labor. Consumers leagues also "rewarded" good…

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Item Type: Newspaper/Magazine
Date: 1901

During the Progressive era, some women believed they could improve conditions for workers through their power as consumers—how they decided what products to buy, and from which stores. At both the local and national levels, women organized consumers' leagues to boycott (not buy from) businesses that didn’t treat its workers well or pay them…

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Item Type: Newspaper/Magazine
Date: 1901