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The interwar peace movement was arguably the largest mass movement of the 1920s and 1930s, a mobilization often overlooked in the wake of the broad popular consensus that ultimately supported the U.S. involvement in World War II. The destruction wrought in World War I (known in the 1920s and 1930s as the "Great War") and the cynical nationalist…

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Item Type: Speech
Date: 1941

Despite a significant surge in student anti-war activities during the early 1930s, the outbreak of civil war in Spain in 1936 caused many student organizations to rally against the rise of fascism in Europe. The aggression of Hitler and Mussolini presented a challenge to these progressive students, who opposed war in principle but recognized the…

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Item Type: Pamphlet/Petition
Date: 1936

American college students in the early 1930s increasingly protested U.S. involvement in the war in Europe. They organized campus strikes around the nation and encouraged students to pledge non-cooperation in any war. This flyer is from the National Committee for the Student Congress Against War, for a program held at the University of Chicago on…

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Item Type: Pamphlet/Petition
Date: 1932

After Congress approved the 19th Amendment in June 1919, the amendment had to be ratified by three fourths of the states. Fortunately, suffragists were well organized at the local level to pressure state legislatures into approving the amendment. To keep track of the amendment’s progress, the National Women’s Party created a…
In 1916, the National Women’s Party (NWP) began picketing the White House. NWP members criticized President Woodrow Wilson for going to war “to make the world safe for democracy” in World War I, while in the United States women were denied the right to vote. Police arrested the picketers for blocking traffic, and a judge sentenced them to…

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Item Type: Artifact
Date: 1917

In 1916, a new militant suffrage group, the National Women’s Party (NWP), was formed. Led by Alice Paul, the NWP began picketing the White House. NWP members criticized President Woodrow Wilson for going to war “to make the world safe for democracy” in World War I, while in the United States women were denied the right to vote.…

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Item Type: Photograph
Date: 1917

On October 20, 1916, the National Women's Party (NWP) organized a suffrage demonstration outside of an auditorium in Chicago where President Woodrow Wilson was giving a campaign speech. Wilson, a Democrat, was running for his second term as President. The NWP wanted to put pressure on political candidates to help push through a constitutional…

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Item Type: Photograph
Date: 1916

Suffrage activists staged a huge parade up Fifth Avenue in New York City on May 10, 1913. Over 10,000 women and men marched, and a crowd of over half a million lined the streets to watch. New Yorkers were inspired by women who had marched in protest during Woodrow Wilson’s inauguration two months earlier in Washington, D.C. There, suffragists…

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Item Type: Photograph
Date: Circa 1913

In this political cartoon from Harper's Weekly, the theories of Henry George, the Workingman's Party candidate for Mayor of New York, are depicted as leading to mob violence and misrule. With a caption featuring a quote from George (taken out of context) that refers to the horrors of the French Revolution, the cartoonist suggests that the…

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Item Type: Cartoon
Date: 1886

During the 1870s and 1880s, hundreds of petitions bearing the signatures of thousands of people flooded Congress, asking for a suffrage amendment. Local activists went door-to-door in their communities, gathering the signatures of sympathetic women and men. These Massachusetts activists followed a template circulated by Susan B. Anthony and…

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Item Type: Pamphlet/Petition
Date: 1879