- Historical Eras > Industrialization and Expansion (1877-1913) (x)
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Young boys were often employed in coal mines in the mining regions of Pennsylvania, Tennessee and Kentucky, and West Virginia, where boys as young as twelve could be legally put to work. Often working in "coal breakers," sorting out slate and other [...]
Child cotton-pickers on a farm in Bells, Texas, documented by Lewis W. Hine, a photographer for the National Child Labor Committee. Children had long been used as cotton-pickers and other agricultural workers in the South, where the tradition of [...]
This photograph, taken during a labor parade in New York City in 1909, shows two young women wearing banners that read "Abolish Child Slavery!" in English and Yiddish. Jewish immigrants were especially active in many labor causes at the turn of the [...]
Around 1900, an anonymous photographer captured this image of children playing in a New York City street, near open sewers and a dead horse. Such scenes prompted reformers to campaign for better sanitation in U.S. cities.
Amusement parks (built at the end of trolley lines to stimulate traffic) achieved broad appeal in the early 1900s, especially among the legions of young immigrant men and women who flocked to parks and beaches on their days off. New York's Coney [...]
These images captured with a stereopticon depict the realities of war in the Philippines, showing both Filipino and American experiences.
In the 1890s, most African Americans labored in the southern cotton economy. Some owned their own farms, but many worked in a system called sharecropping. Landlords provided sharecroppers with land, a cabin, farm tools, and cotton seed; in return, [...]
Frederick Douglass was an escaped slave, a leader of the anti-slavery movement in the North, editor of the abolitionist newspaper the North Star, and, after the Civil War, a diplomat for the U.S. government. This photograph was taken in his study in [...]
Jacob Riis—a journalist and photographer of industrial America and himself a Danish immigrant—exposed the deplorable conditions of late nineteenth-century urban life in his widely-read book, How the Other Half Lives, first published in [...]
Progressive reformers established settlement houses to aid new immigrants and instill American middle class values. Some social workers were sympathetic to the immigrants' problems and helped publicize their plight. Others were critical of immigrant [...]