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menuAmerican Social History Project  ·    Center for Media and Learning

  • Theme > Expansion and Imperialism (x)
  • Historical Eras > Industrialization and Expansion (1877-1913) (x)

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"The White Man's Burden" (Excerpt)

In February 1899, British novelist and poet Rudyard Kipling wrote a poem entitled “The White Man’s Burden: The United States and The Philippine Islands.” In this poem, Kipling urged the U.S. to take up the “burden” of empire, as had [...]

"The Brown Man's Burden" (Excerpt)

Much like Lulu Baxter Guy's "The Black Man's Burden," Henry Labouchère's "The Brown Man's Burden" shifts the emphasis of Kipling's notorious poem, offering a view of imperialism from the perspective of those who were most directly affected by the [...]

"The Poor Man's Burden" (Excerpt)

This poem was one of a number of parodies written in response to Rudyard Kipling's "The White Man's Burden." Here the author points out the special misery that imperialism abroad places on working people back home.

"The Belle of Manilla"

During the 1890s, popular songs and sensationalist news coverage played a large role in drumming up support for U.S. intervention and the Spanish-American War. "The Belle of Manila," written in 1898, was one of many pro-war songs that were played in [...]

A Filipino Independence Leader Denounces U.S. Intervention

Sixto Lopez (1863-1947) was a prominent and influential leader of the Filipino independence movement who worked closely with the American Anti-Imperialist League. In this article published in Gunton's Magazine (a pro-capitalist, pro-labor journal), [...]

Filipinos Object to "Reconcentration"

During its invasion of the Philippines, the United States ordered Filipinos to be concentrated or restricted in "protected" villages. Anyone not in a village would be considered an enemy insurgent. Although the war was officially declared over in [...]

The President of Union Pacific Praises the Railroads

This excerpt from Sidney Dillon's article "The West and the Railroads," from an 1891 issue of The North American Review, credits the railroad with the growth and positive transformation of the American West. The president of the Union Pacific [...]

The New York Times Reports Battles against Filipino Insurgents

This article provides details of battles between the U.S. Army and the Filipino "insurgents." Many of the reports describe the Filipino soldiers being led by non-Filipino commanders, including David Fagin, an African-American deserter of the U.S. [...]

Photographers Capture the Trauma of War in the Philippines

These images captured with a stereopticon depict the realities of war in the Philippines, showing both Filipino and American experiences.

Platform of the American Anti-Imperialist League

The Anti-Imperialist League was formed on June 15, 1898 to oppose U.S. annexation of the Philippines. Prominent members of the league included author Mark Twain, industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie, and American Federation of Labor [...]