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In the summer of 1919, violence broke out between whites and African Americans in Chicago. The five-day riot left thirty-eight people dead and more than five hundred people injured. The city formed a Commission on Race Relations to study what happened during the riot and what conditions in the city contributed to the violence. As part of that…

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Item Type: Book (excerpt)
Date: 1922

At the beginning of the twentieth century, as now, access to quality public education was uneven, and the problem disproportionately impacted African-American children. W.E.B. DuBois, himself highly educated, was sharply critical of Booker T. Washington's model of technical and industrial education for African Americans. DuBois argued that…

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Item Type: Article/Essay
Date: 1903

This graphic organizer helps students categorize different events in the 1940s civil rights struggle. It is part of the activity "The Movement Before the Movement."

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Item Type: Worksheet
Date: 2011

These cards are for the activity "The Movement Before the Movement: Civil Rights Activism in the 1940s." Before beginning the activity, the teacher should print and cut out a set of event cards and who-what-where cards for each student or group participating in the activity.

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Item Type: Worksheet
Date: 2011

Although early suffragists were not successful in passing a federal constitutional amendment to give women the right to vote, activists worked hard at the local and state levels throughout the late 19th and early 20th centuries. They formed local organizations, proposed new state laws, and campaigned for state-wide referenda that gave women the…
The Democratic Party political machine notoriously ruled Chicago, distributing jobs and city services in exchange for political support. James Bevel, the director of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference's direct action campaigns, was a veteran strategist of sit-ins, Freedom Rides, the Birmingham Children's Crusade, the Mississippi Freedom…
Professor John R. Hawkins wrote this short pamphlet on behalf of the NAACP. In it he outlines African Americans' demands for justice and equality at home following World War I. The NAACP makes 14 demands in response to Wilson's "14 Points," in which the president outlined a plan for peace in the post-war world.

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Item Type: Article/Essay
Date: Circa 1916

Though rallies featured national figures like Martin Luther King, Jr., and lawsuits were often filed by men, the day-in, day-out on-the-ground organizing and protesting against school segregation was led by mothers who demanded the best possible education for their children. In 1958 in New York City, a group of mothers nicknamed the "Harlem Nine"…

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Item Type: Photograph
Date: Circa 1964

This poster, from A. Philip Randolph's planned March on Washington in 1941, illustrates several issues central to the march. The threat of a large-scale public protest persuaded President Roosevelt to issue Executive Order 8802, which banned racially motivated employment discrimination in federal government and the defense industry.
This is the writing prompt for the activity "The Movement Before the Movement: Civil Rights Activism in the 1940s."

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Item Type: Worksheet
Date: 2011